Mastering the Art of Inquiry
By Jim Dawson
receive massive amounts of information at work and in your personal
life every day. But are
you getting the information you really need?
Do you know how to ask the right questions and actively listen
to the answers--whatever they may be--in order to gain the knowledge
and insights you need to be successful?
are two types of questions: open and closed.
Open questions encourage people to share information in a free
flowing manner. Closed
questions solicit specific
information, such as “What is your name?” and “Where is the
train station?” Most of
us are comfortable asking closed questions because the answers are
helpful and straightforward.
when you ask an open question and listen carefully to the answer, you
may discover something you were not expecting.
In fact, the answer might challenge your assumptions and
require you to adjust to new circumstances.
for example, your employee did something that didn’t turn out well,
you could ask him why he did it. That
is an open question, but unless you ask it in a supportive,
non-threatening way, he could become defensive.
A more productive open question might be, “Can you tell me
what you were thinking about when you did it?”
His answer to that question will shed greater light on his
motives and intentions and give you more of the information you need
to help him make better decisions.
journalism techniques such as asking who, what, why, when, where, and
how can help you gain valuable information.
However, one of the easiest ways to get people to talk is to
ask with genuine interest, “Can you tell me more about that,” or,
“Can you help me understand what you mean?”
When people believe they can trust you, they will tell you what
you need to know.
crucial reasons for asking questions and actively listening to the
Obtain and Clarify Information:
Have you ever responded to a request from your customer, boss, or spouse
and later realized that you didn’t have all the information you
needed? Perhaps during the
interaction you were focused on something else or distracted by your
own thoughts. You can
avoid such unpleasant situations in the future by taking a moment,
when a request is being made, to stop and ask questions that give you
accurate information and a clear understanding of the circumstances.
Then reflect back to the person what you heard to ensure mutual
agreement as to what is needed to achieve the desired outcome and to
confirm you have enough direction to satisfy their expectations.
Should you have a different opinion about how something should be done,
ask open questions that help you understand the other person’s point
of view. Good questions
might be, “Why is it important to do it this way?” and, “How
will this process affect the results?”
The answers will help you support the person properly.
Take a tip from former Notre Dame Football Coach Lou Holtz, who said,
“I never learn anything by talking.
I only learn when I ask questions.”
Provoke Thought and Promote Teamwork:
Have you ever heard a question or comment about something that made you
realize you had never considered that subject in that particular way?
It may or may not have changed the way you think –yet it
helped you to see things differently.
Asking open questions of yourself and others leads to a broader
perspective and promotes good teamwork.
When a colleague is doing something that seems strange to you,
rather than asking her why she is doing it that way, ask yourself why
she is doing it that way. The
answer may surprise you.
The same is true in helping others value your opinion or approach.
By asking your colleague why she thinks you do things the way
you do, you open the door to a potentially productive dialogue and
better teamwork. The key
is to ask questions that help you and others see both sides of the
issue without invalidating either point of view.
People will give you all kinds of information if you treat them with
dignity and respect. According
to Peter Drucker, world-renowned business consultant, author, and
speaker, “My greatest strength as a consultant is to be ignorant and
ask a few questions.”
3. To Gain
Control of a Situation:
Often, people try to solve a problem without first questioning whether
they know what the problem really is, or making certain the problem is
clearly understood by everyone involved in finding the solution.
In this case, the right questions can assist you in forming a strategy
to take control of the situation.
But even the best questions are only effective if you truly
listen to the answers and clearly understand the other person’s
When someone is angry, let him or her know that you sincerely want to
know why. By asking
“What makes you say that?” then, “What can we do to alleviate
this?” and listening to the answers with an open mind, you will set
the stage for finding the solution.
You will be in control of the situation if you are more
interested in finding a good solution than in being right.
Promote Your Power of Persuasion:
We all have our own opinions, but the people you want to persuade may
not have all the facts. To
get others to agree with you, ask questions that, as they are
answered, cause others to see the advantages of what you are promoting
or the problems you want to avoid.
In other words, ask questions that help people see “what’s
in it for them.”
It’s not as difficult as it sounds.
Some of the world’s greatest sales professionals are masters
of this technique. They
put themselves in their customer’s shoes and ask, “What would make
me believe that?” or, “Why should I care about this?”
To learn how to ask these types of questions, watch others who do it
well and read books that teach how to ask effective questions.
As Dorothy Leeds, author of The 7 Powers of Questions, wrote,
“There are only two major ways to get information: by watching and
reading and by asking questions and listening.”
The Seven Powers of Questions and Smart Questions by Dorothy
Leeds, and SPIN Selling by Neil Rackham, are excellent resources.
5. To Help
You Become a Better Listener:
When you ask a question, naturally you have self-interest in hearing the
answer. To truly benefit
from the information the answer provides you must care about what the
other person is saying. When
others believe that you will treat them with the level of integrity
and confidentiality they need to give you an honest answer, the
relationships you have with customers, fellow employees, management,
and in your personal life will strengthen and grow.
Remember, you may know all that is possible to know at a given moment,
but you should never stop asking questions and gathering information.
As John Wooden, a former UCLA
basketball coach said, “It's what you learn after you
know it all that counts."
If you want to be a better leader, or just a more productive person,
take time to master the art of inquiry.
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